2023 Author: Bryan Walter | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 22:24
Stone artifacts from the Ein Kashish site
Neanderthals have lived in the open site of Ein Kashish at least four times over several millennia, according to PLoS One. Perhaps the place attracted them by the fact that it was next to the river and it was convenient to hunt animals coming to the watering place. As shown by the found stone tools and bones of herbivores, here the animals were butchered and tools were also made.
The open Paleolithic site of Ein Kashish is located in northern Israel, on the banks of the Kishon River. It occupied more than 1300 square meters (this is about the twentieth part of Red Square). The site was discovered in 2004, and in the following years, excavations were carried out here three times. Judging by the remains found, Neanderthals lived on Ein Kashish. As shown by optical dating, the site was used in the period 54-71 thousand years ago, perhaps 60-70 thousand years ago.
Israeli archaeologists led by Ravid Ekshtain of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem excavated at Ein Kashish in 2013. The works were carried out in six locations on a total area of 670 square meters. Archaeologists have found more than 12 thousand artifacts, the remains of Neanderthals and more than two thousand animal bones.
As it turned out, the Neanderthals used the site more than once, but came there for a short time at least four times over several millennia. Apparently, they were attracted by the convenient location of the camp next to the river - a source of fresh water and a convenient place for hunting. Probably, here one could observe the animals coming to the watering place and hunt them.
Bones with marks and stone tools testify to the fact that people butchered animals here. Archaeologists have found the remains of exclusively ungulates, mainly bison, horses, gazelles and fallow deer. There were no carnivore and small game remains on Ein Kashish. In addition to butchering animals, tools were made here. This is evidenced by blanks and stone hammers. Perhaps the Neanderthals used fire in the parking lot, but scientists could not find reliable evidence.
Scientists suggest that ancient people lived on Ein Kashish in summer, spring or autumn. In winter, the water in the neighboring river rose and the site was flooded, so it was impossible to stay here.
Earlier, archaeologists suggested that the Neanderthals used not only stone knives or scrapers to make tools from hard wood, but also burned them on fire to make it easier to remove the bark and remove small knots.